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From 30 November to 11 December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the end of the Un Climate Change Conference (UN), one of the largest and most ambitious global meetings ever held. The goal was nothing less than a binding and universal agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2oC above the lower temperature levels set before the start of the industrial revolution. Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an „Annex 1“ country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases. [91] The aim of the agreement is to reduce the global warming described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by the following:[11] The EU and its member states are individually responsible for the ratification of the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that belong exclusively to the other[71] and there was concern that there was a disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact. [72] However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement[60] and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States. [72] The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. It is rare that there is a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it. In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some important reasons why the agreement is so important: the Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.

[15] InDCs become NDCs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. In addition, countries are working to reach „the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions“ as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels. [13] [14] The agreement stipulated that it would only enter into force (and thus become fully effective) if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) agree, approve or adhere to the agreement.

[66] [67] On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement. [69] 175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on

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